Wind load is a critical factor to consider in the design of tall buildings.
Wind load is the result of the wind, which creates pressure and suction forces on the facade elements. The wind load of a particular building depends on its height, shape, relationship with surrounding buildings, as well as regional wind speeds and storm durations.
The facade wind load analysis aims to determine the pressure distribution that will occur on the building facade and examine the different scenarios.
Factors such as the building's materials and the geometry of the building are examined in detail to determine the pressure distribution and flow conditions caused by the wind. A detailed 3D model of the building is prepared and the average pressures on the facades are obtained in detail as a result of computer simulations and analysis.
When applying wind analysis, one of the standards TS 498, “Istanbul High Buildings Wind Regulation” or Eurocode EN 1991 1-4 (TS-EN 1991 1 – 4) is used.
With the simulation reports prepared, the static resistance values of systems such as facade materials and sunshades used in high-rise buildings are reached and improvements are made in system selection.
A typical facade wind load analysis consists of following phases:
The site and Building Data Collection: This involves gathering information about the building's location, geometry, and construction materials, as well as meteorological data and local wind conditions.
Wind Speed Analysis: This involves determining the wind speeds that the building facade is subjected to and the frequency of these wind speeds.
Wind Pressure Calculation: This involves calculating the wind pressures that the building facade is subjected to using appropriate wind load standards or codes.
Load Distribution Analysis: This involves determining how the wind loads are distributed across the building facade and the resulting forces and deformations.
Structural Analysis: This involves evaluating the structural performance of the building envelope, including the cladding, windows, and other components, to ensure that they can withstand the calculated wind loads.
Design and Verification: This involves designing and verifying the building envelope and its components to ensure that they meet the required load-carrying capacity and safety requirements.
Documentation: Finally, the results of the analysis are documented in a report, which includes the wind load calculations, load distribution analysis, and design recommendations. The report serves as a reference for future design and evaluation of the building envelope.
It's important to note that the specific phases and the level of detail involved in a facade wind load analysis can vary depending on the building type, location, and local codes and regulations.
A facade wind load analysis aims to determine the wind loads that a building facade is subjected to and the resulting forces and deformations that the facade must withstand. The result of a facade wind load analysis is typically a set of wind load calculations, which provide information on the maximum wind loads and the associated pressure distribution on the building facade.
This information is used to design and evaluate the structural performance of the building envelope, including the cladding, windows, and other components. It can also be used to determine the wind loads that are transmitted to the building structure and help ensure that the structure is capable of resisting these loads. Additionally, the results of the analysis may be used to identify areas where wind-borne debris may impact the building and contribute to the overall safety of the building and its occupants.